Let's start by learning everything there is to know about a simple program:

Shoes.app do
  para "Hello World"
end

Oh wait! Let's do a different program, that one is too complicated.

Seriously.

In fact, we'll probably do text blocks last as Davor once suggested.

OK, so what's simpler? How about something that doesn't actually touch the DSL. Something like

Shoes.app do
  puts "Hello World"
end

Nope, still too complicated. I want to start deep down at the bottom and this has too much going on!

Let's say that this app was called app.rb, then I'd run it like this

$ bin/shoes testing/app.rb

Sidenote: I'm assuming you've cloned/forked the shoes4 repo and are sitting in the root directory when you run your test apps. You should put example apps like this in a testing directory, as shown above, because the shoes4 .gitignore already ignores that directory.

If this sidenote doesn't make sense, don't despair! Just go read up a little bit on Github and how to contribute to an open source project. There are some great tutorials out there. Once you have got that down, come on back! For the rest of these tutorials I'll be assuming only very basic Ruby knowledge since that's all I have :)


The important thing here is that bin/shoes call. One thing that's neat about Shoes is that it ships with its own executable shoes so that we don't muddy the app with any requires, extends, or includes. That's neat for the end user and a bit magical, so that means it will take a little work to understand. Since it's the first Shoes thing we're running into here, it's the best place to start.

The Shoes Executable

So the first program we'll look at will just be

puts "Hello World"

and we'll run it with

$ bin/shoes testing/hello.rb

First let's go find that executable. It's in a directory called /bin.


Sidenote:The tutorials are pretty tightly bound to the way Shoes is written right now so if you are reading this and it doesn't match up with the actual code, or you find a broken link, then either let me know or fix it! I want these to be up-to-date and accurate and that means they'll need updating by conscientious readers!

Also I recommend that you open links to code (like the one above) in a new tab so that you can take a good look at the file I'm talking about and read my comments on it.


This is one of many shell scripts in the Shoes project. If you don't know anything about shell scripts that's OK, I didn't either at the beginning of writing this tutorial. After writing it I've learned a lot. There's a neat tutorial about shell scripts at linuxcommand.org and I recommend you briefly peruse it, at least the very first page to get an idea, and then maybe learn what a shebang is too.

OK, so with some of those preliminaries down let's look at the script.

#!/usr/bin/env sh

# This is NOT the primary shoes that's installed--just a helper for local
# development purposes
cd ./bin
export SHOES_PICKER_BIN_DIR=`pwd -P`

cd ..
shoes-core/bin/shoes [email protected]

First this script jumps into the bin directory and then exports a shell variable that holds the current working directory (we'll need that later). Finally it jumps back to the main shoes4 directory and executes the shoes executable over in shoes-core/bin/shoes. The use of [email protected] here means this script passes all the arguments that were given to it onto the next one untouched.

So let's go find that script!


The shoes script over in shoes-core is the real shoes script, so that means this script is setting up our environment (ENV) for purposes that will be clear later on.


The Real Shoes Executable

OK, so if we head over to /shoes-core/bin/shoes then we'll see a sym-link to another script shoes-stub which is in the same directory. This is the real script: /shoes-core/bin/shoes-stub.

We're going to go through this file a few lines at a time to understand it all. Let's start with the comment.

The first few lines tell us that if we want to learn why shoes-core uses both shoes and shoes-stub we'll need to go into the ext/install/Rakefile and see it in the context of installation. Since I'd like to hold installation off for another tutorial, let's keep on moving and trust that this was a wise choice (for now).

The next lines define two functions: mac_move_to_link_dir and mac_readlink_f.

Next we come to a case statement. It says SCRIPT is either mac_readlink_f or just readlink -f depending on whether the script is run on a mac (darwin). Since I want to stay somewhat focused, I'm going to leave as an exercise to the reader how the mac_readlink_f function works, and instead focus on what readlink -f means.

After reading the stackoverflow post mentioned in the comment it looks like we're just setting the SCRIPT variable to be the path to the shoes-stub script we're looking at, then finding the directory of that script as SCRIPTPATH and finally adding shoes-backend. To make this clear, let's add some echos after the BACKEND_FILE definition like so:

BACKEND_FILE="$SCRIPTPATH/shoes-backend"
echo $SCRIPT
echo $SCRIPTPATH
echo $BACKEND_FILE

we get the following output when running the script alone (on my mac I just double clicked the shoes-stub file).

/Users/KC/Programming/shoes4/shoes-core/bin/shoes-stub
/Users/KC/Programming/shoes4/shoes-core/bin
/Users/KC/Programming/shoes4/shoes-core/bin/shoes-backend

The next thing we do is see if a shoes-backend script actually exists in the directory, if so do nothing, if not then you need to run shoes-picker and hand it SCRIPTPATH.


Sidenote The if statement here takes option -e which checks if a file exists. I found a guide at tldp.org

Let's take a look at what shoes-picker does before finishing this script.

Shoes-Picker

Ah, the first piece of Ruby code our little program has encountered so far. It is short and sweet

#!/usr/bin/env ruby
lib_directory = File.expand_path('../../lib', __FILE__)
$LOAD_PATH << lib_directory

require 'shoes/ui/picker'

# On Windows getting odd paths with trailing double-quote
bin_dir = ARGV[0].gsub('"', '')

Shoes::UI::Picker.new.run(bin_dir)

This little bit of code modifies our LOAD_PATH so that we can use a simple require and then run an instance of Shoes::UI::Picker. The definition of this class is over in shoes-core/lib/shoes/ui/picker.

When the run method of Picker is called it * "bundles" * gets a generator file * writes the generator file

Let's talk about each of those steps.

bundle

I was a little confused about this bit of code, and the fantastic @jasonrclark answered my question like so

The key thing is what bundler/setup actually does, and that's setting up the load paths for your gems so that only things in your Gemfile are available. This is super important for local dev because our Gemfile forces everything to use the source copy rather than any gem-installed copies of Shoes.

So the point is that at this stage of development, the picker is mostly about getting the development environment set up. It's all primed to select backends, but that's not really the point right now.

In this helpful explanation of the picker, Jason goes on to explain that bundler next requires the correct gems from the Gemfile and avoids anything that's installed.

select_generator

This chunk of code first finds candidates via Gem which is provided by rubygems and searches through each of the gems on the load path. Right now that means shoes-core, shoes-package, and shoes-swt. The only one of those that contains a generate-backend.rb is swt and the method returns the path to that file.

That means for now the only line of the if/elsif that gets used is 'candidates.one?'. But you can see that some mechanics are built in for the future when we'll have multiple backends.

write_backend

The first thing we do is define a function for generating the backend by requiring the generator file. For SWT that function looks like this:

require 'rbconfig'

def generate_backend(path)
  if RbConfig::CONFIG["host_os"] =~ /darwin/
    options = "-J-XstartOnFirstThread"
  end

  "jruby --1.9 #{options} #{path}/shoes-swt"
end

The output of this function is a string which will later be run in a shell script. That string will contain the string "-J-XstartOnFirstThread" if the host is using darwin architecture.

We do this because SWT needs to create a Display widget, and it can't do that on the OSX / Mac / darwin architecture unless it's on the main thread. JRuby has an option for doing just that: -J-XstartOnFirstThread and so it must be passed in when jruby tries to run the swt files. For another approach to learning about this problem check out this chunk of the wiki.

After defining that function with the require, back in Picker we go through a little work (note that we use the SHOES_PICKER_BIN_DIR here) to get the exact path to the top-level bin directory and hands it over to generate_backend. The end result is that a file gets written in the correct place called shoes-backend. On my machine this file contains the following line of text:

jruby --1.9 -J-XstartOnFirstThread /Users/KC/Programming/shoes4/bin/shoes-swt

:tada: - Now we've got an executable to the backend!

Back to shoes-stub

OK, so we left shoes-stub to find out what $SCRIPTPATH/shoes-picker $SCRIPTPATH does. The answer was it writes out a file that contains a shell command starting with jruby and ending with a path to the shoes-swt script.

What follows next is that the last piece of shoes-stub just runs that file (the cat command means: read the file) using the correct path ($SCRIPTPATH) and passing along the arguments ([email protected]).

So that's it for shoes-stub. All that this script did (essentially) was point at the shoes-swt binary and execute it. It might seem like a lot of work for such a simple task, but the complexity is necessary because of the division between running an app from source (like a developer does) and running it from the gem (which we haven't discussed yet).

shoes-swt

Just like the top-level shoes script, this one is pointing us to the script over in the gem's bin directory: shoes-swt/bin/shoes-swt

The first half of this duplicates the work that bundler did back in Picker in case that script didn't get called (remember it's a one time operation), and the last bit is:

require 'shoes/ui/cli'
Shoes::CLI.new.run ARGV

So let's dive into the CLI a bit

Shoes::CLI

CLI stands for Command Line Interface. That means this file is the one that is supposed to handle calls to the shoes command-line app runner.

So let's take a look at the run method and remember that ARGV has only 1 argument, the (relative) file path.


Sidenote: The initialize here sets up the backend and the packager. Since I don't want to get into packaging let's take a quick look at the backend work done here.

First it unshifts the current directory from the PATH and requires the backend file, in our case shoes/swt.rb. Next it uses some mechanics Shoes.load_backend (Shoes got pulled in at the top of this file) and initialize_backend to setup the backend. Since for now Shoes has only 1 backend I'll not get into these either.


run does the following:

  1. parses the arguments
  2. handles the case where 0 arguments are given
  3. runs the app with the packager or the execute_app method.

1. Parse the Arguments

This step uses ruby's built-in OptionParser to simultaneously create an options summary and define what the CLI should do when encountering the different options (see the docs). The intent then is for the explanation of what the opts do and the implementation to be unified, so instead of me explaining this step I'll let you just read it.

After the setup, it actually parses the args and returns the OptionParser object.

2. Handle args.empty?

Next, if there are no arguments, as in

$ bin/shoes

then we exit after outputting the banner and program name like so:

Usage: shoes [-h] [-p package] file
Try 'shoes --help' for more information

3. Package or Run

Since in this example we are not packaging, I'll ignore what @packager.run does and just look at execute_app. This method has one simple and key function: load. This method grabs the app (in our case puts "Hello World"). And then it actually runs the app.

Conclusion

In this tutorial we walked through all of the code necessary to run a small bit of Ruby code. A lot happened, but most of the work was spent setting up and running the development environment. In the end we defined the entire Shoes library and then ran the app.